BGP Route-Reflector Design

A route learned by one ibgp peer won’t be advertised to another ibgp peer. This is called BGP split horizon rule. This rule is used to avoid loop in ibgp cases. To mitigate this, we have following option by which one ibgp learned routes can be advertised to another ibgp peer. BGP full mesh BGP

Types of Address resolution Protocol(ARP)

Topology Address resolution Protocol is used to find the Layer 2( mac address) information when the layer 3(IP) Information is already given. Total 9 filed in Header. The typical Address resolution protocol Header format is shown as below Fig1 ARP_Header Hardware Type: Hardware Type field in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Message specifies the type

Different Static Route Options

  The IP assignment on interface is shown as above. We will demonstrate the following case study. Case Study 1: Static routes using exit interface Case Study 2:Static routes using IP as next hop Case Study 3:Static routes using exit interface and IP add as next hop Let’s understand how the communication takes place in Ethernet


OSI Stands for open system interconnection model.  This is reference or virtual model, you cannot see it , touch it ,but its exists conceptually just like electron, protons etc. OSI model is invented by ISO(International standard organization). ISO is non profit organization that defines several  standards. It is just like other standard e.g ISI mark,